Lesson. In Indiana, a defendant mortgagor generally will be required to post a bond in order to stay a sheriff’s sale during its appeal of an adverse foreclosure decree. Without a bond and a corresponding order of stay, the sheriff’s sale can occur, and the mortgagor (owner) can lose the real estate even if the mortgagor ultimately prevails on appeal. But the amount of the bond will not be the full value of the property, and trial courts have discretion when setting the bond amount.
Case cite. Brooks v. Bank of Geneva, 97 N.E.3d 647 (Ind. Ct. App. 2018); reaffirmed, 103 N.E.3d 197 (Ind. Ct. App. 2018).
Legal issue. Whether the amount of the appeal bond set by the trial court should have been reduced.
Vital facts. The Brooks case was the subject of my 3/6/19 post: Indiana Court Releases Mortgage On Parents' Farmland Based On Material Alteration Of Kids' Loan. Click for a summary of the facts. Importantly, the judgment against the parents/mortgagors was in rem only, meaning that they were not personally liable for the judgment amount. Only their farmland was at risk.
Procedural history. My prior post details the procedural history of the litigation. For today’s purposes, what is important is that the trial court compelled the parents, who lost at the trial court level and appealed, to post a bond of $285,000 in order to stay execution of the judgment during the appeal. The parents immediately requested the Court of Appeals to reduce the amount of the bond.
Both the Indiana Rules of Trial Procedure and the Indiana Rules of Appellate Procedure speak to appeal bonds. See, Appellate Rule 18 and Trial Rule 62(D)(2). The appellate rule basically is that a bond is not required for an appeal but is required to stay execution during an appeal. Since a sheriff’s sale is a form of “execution,” the defendant/mortgagor generally must post some kind of bond to prevent the sale. The trial rule, on the other hand, provides the guidelines for setting the amount of the bond, and a key consideration in a foreclosure case is that the bond “secure the amount recovered for the use and detention of the property, the costs of the action, costs on appeal, interests and damages for delay.”
Indiana case law holds that, in a foreclosure case, the bond can include amounts for the “use” of the real estate during the appeal and “damages for delay.” “Use” generally is measured by the fair rental value. “Damages for delay” has included “things such as waste or depreciation.”
All that being said, trial courts have discretion in determing the amount of the bond and will not be reversed absent abuse of that discretion.
Holding. The Indiana Court of Appeals reduced the bond amount to $25,000.
Policy/rationale. The trial court set the bond at $285,000 based upon the value of the mortgaged property of $250,000, plus attorney fees and interest. The Court of Appeals concluded that the trial court did not follow the rules and guidelines above. The Court found that the bank offered no evidence of rental value, while the parents asserted that the farmland could not generate any rental income during the winter months when the appeal was pending. Further, apparently there was no information in the record indicating that either depreciation or waste would occur. The Court based its determination of the bond on (1) the bank’s $15,000 estimate of appellate attorney fees and (2) $10,000 in potential interest during the length of the appeal [8% on the $250,000 property value].
My practice includes representing lenders, borrowers and guarantors in contested commercial mortgage foreclosure cases. If you need assistance with a similar matter, please call me at 317-639-6151 or email me at firstname.lastname@example.org. Also, don’t forget that you can follow me on Twitter @JohnDWaller or on LinkedIn, or you can subscribe to posts via RSS or email as noted on my home page.