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Must Indiana Affidavits Be Signed Under The Penalties Of Perjury?

A client recently asked me whether its summary judgment affidavit needed to be signed under the penalties of perjury. Given the business records nature of the affidavit (under Evidence Rule 803(6)), the affiant had some heartburn about the nature of his execution.

Trial rule.  The affidavit was for an Indiana state court case, so Indiana state law applied.  The applicable Trial Rule is 11(B). The rule doesn’t directly answer the question, however. Here is the entire section of the rule:

Verified pleadings, motions, and affidavits as evidence. Pleadings, motions and affidavits accompanying or in support of such pleadings or motions when required to be verified or under oath shall be accepted as a representation that the signer had personal knowledge thereof or reasonable cause to believe the existence of the facts or matters stated or alleged therein; and, if otherwise competent or acceptable as evidence, may be admitted as evidence of the facts or matters stated or alleged therein when it is so provided in these rules, by statute or other law, or to the extent the writing or signature expressly purports to be made upon the signer’s personal knowledge. When such pleadings, motions and affidavits are verified or under oath they shall not require other or greater proof on the part of the adverse party than if not verified or not under oath unless expressly provided otherwise by these rules, statute or other law. Affidavits upon motions for summary judgment under Rule 56 and in denial of execution under Rule 9.2 shall be made upon personal knowledge.

The rule begs the question of what “verified or under oath” means.

Case law.  Indiana case law appears to have the answer. Although using the exact language of TR 11(B) is not required, the “chief test of the sufficiency of an affidavit is its ability to serve as a predicate for a perjury prosecution.” Jordan v. Deery, 609 N.E.2d 1104, 1110 (Ind. 1993). In Gaddie v. Manlief (In re H.R.M.), 864 N.E.2d 442 (Ind. Ct. App. 2007), the Indiana Court of Appeals provides a thorough discussion of what is required for a business records affidavit and affidavits generally. The Court determined that a business records affidavit whose affiant stated, “I, Anita Martin, being duly sworn, state as follows” was insufficient to constitute a valid verification as it was inadequate to subject Martin to prosecution for making a false affidavit, and therefore, insufficient to support the accompanying business records. A statement such as “duly sworn upon his oath, alleges and says” with a notarized signature provides a stronger intention to be bound by the penalty for perjury than “being duly sworn,” Id. (citing State ex rel. Ind. State Bd. Of Dental Examiners v. Judd, 554 N.E.2d 829 (Ind. Ct. App. 1990)). The Court did note, however, that Bentz v. Judd, 714 N.E.2d 203 (Ind. Ct. App. 1999), and an older Indiana Supreme Court case, Gossard v. Vawter, 21 N.E.2d 416 (Ind. 1939), found such a verification to still be insufficient. On the other hand, the statement “I affirm the truth of the above statements” met the requirements for verification in a summary judgment affidavit in Hoskins v. Sharp, 629 N.E.2d 1271 (Ind. Ct. App. 1994).

The answer is yes.  Although the rule and the case law may not crystal clear on the exact verbiage needed, the bottom line is that, to ensure affidavits will stand up in court, it is prudent to state, either at the beginning or immediately before the signature, that the affidavit is being given under oath and subject to the penalties of perjury. For what it’s worth, I usually start my affidavits with “Affiant, _____, having first been duly sworn upon his oath, hereby affirms as follows", and I end my affidavits with “I affirm under the penalties of perjury that the foregoing is true and correct to the best of my knowledge, information and belief.”

Here are a couple prior posts related to affidavits:

I’d like to thank our associate Erica Drew for researching this issue. Her work helped me to get this post up before being out on spring break next week.